Audio Outputs and Endpoints

This chapter deals with getting audio mixes out to one or more listeners, dealing with headphones, sub-woofers and low-frequency effects, synthetic and actual front-centre speakers, speakers and headphones connected to game controllers, typical extra-endpoint content, VR demos for participants and watchers, secondary audio outputs and their interaction with force-feedback devices.

It includes C++ code and data for three 'brick wall' anti-aliasing filters, comparing their performance in audio quality and processing resources. It provides links to free online filter-design tools and explains when you might not need them.

Ideas explored: dynamic range, compression and loudness metering, side chains and submixes, output capture and avoiding known signal wrapping risks, YouTube uploads, reporting overloads without spamming the log, saturating arithmetic, mobile phone latency measurements and workarounds, cinematic encoder lag issues, tuning HDMI configurations, how to make non-diegetic speech and effects stand out in a stereo mix when there's no explicit dialogue speaker.

The author demonstrates 3D7.1 sound
Big rig: The author demonstrates Ambisonic 3D audio to academics and games-industry colleagues at the Audio Engineering Society's 2009 International Conference in London, using an array of speakers kindly provided by Genelec.

Further reading

Geometrical Interactions, Occlusion and Reflections - previous chapter abstract.
Glossary and Resources - final chapter abstract.
Return to the index of chapters.
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Copyright © 2019 Simon N Goodwin     [';']